The choice of test approaches or test strategy is one of the most powerful factor in the success of the test effort and the accuracy of the test plans and estimates. This factor is under the control of the testers and test leaders.
Let’s survey the major types of test strategies that are commonly found:
- Analytical: Let us take an example to understand this. The risk-based strategy involves performing a risk analysis using project documents and stakeholder input, then planning, estimating, designing, and prioritizing the tests based on risk. Another analytical test strategy is the requirements-based strategy, where an analysis of the requirements specification forms the basis for planning, estimating and designing tests. Analytical test strategies have in common the use of some formal or informal analytical technique, usually during the requirements and design stages of the project.
- Model-based: Let us take an example to understand this. You can build mathematical models for loading and response for e commerce servers, and test based on that model. If the behavior of the system under test conforms to that predicted by the model, the system is deemed to be working. Model-based test strategies have in common the creation or selection of some formal or informal model for critical system behaviors, usually during the requirements and design stages of the project.
- Methodical: Let us take an example to understand this. You might have a checklist that you have put together over the years that suggests the major areas of testing to run or you might follow an industry-standard for software quality, such as ISO 9126, for your outline of major test areas. You then methodically design, implement and execute tests following this outline. Methodical test strategies have in common the adherence to a pre-planned, systematized approach that has been developed in-house, assembled from various concepts developed inhouse and gathered from outside, or adapted significantly from outside ideas and may have an early or late point of involvement for testing.
- Process – or standard-compliant: Let us take an example to understand this. You might adopt the IEEE 829 standard for your testing, using books such as [Craig, 2002] or [Drabick, 2004] to fill in the methodological gaps. Alternatively, you might adopt one of the agile methodologies such as Extreme Programming. Process- or standard-compliant strategies have in common reliance upon an externally developed approach to testing, often with little – if any – customization and may have an early or late point of involvement for testing.
- Dynamic: Let us take an example to understand this. You might create a lightweight set of testing guide lines that focus on rapid adaptation or known weaknesses in software. Dynamic strategies, such as exploratory testing, have in common concentrating on finding as many defects as possible during test execution and adapting to the realities of the system under test as it is when delivered, and they typically emphasize the later stages of testing. See, for example, the attack based approach of [Whittaker, 2002] and [Whittaker, 2003] and the exploratory approach of [Kaner et al., 2002].
- Consultative or directed: Let us take an example to understand this. You might ask the users or developers of the system to tell you what to test or even rely on them to do the testing. Consultative or directed strategies have in common the reliance on a group of non-testers to guide or perform the testing effort and typically emphasize the later stages of testing simply due to the lack of recognition of the value of early testing.
- Regression-averse: Let us take an example to understand this. You might try to automate all the tests of system functionality so that, whenever anything changes, you can re-run every test to ensure nothing has broken. Regression-averse strategies have in common a set of procedures – usually automated – that allow them to detect regression defects. A regression-averse strategy may involve automating functional tests prior to release of the function, in which case it requires early testing, but sometimes the testing is almost entirely focused on testing functions that already have been released, which is in some sense a form of post release test involvement.
Some of these strategies are more preventive, others more reactive. For example, analytical test strategies involve upfront analysis of the test basis, and tend to identify problems in the test basis prior to test execution. This allows the early – and cheap – removal of defects. That is a strength of preventive approaches.
Dynamic test strategies focus on the test execution period. Such strategies allow the location of defects and defect clusters that might have been hard to anticipate until you have the actual system in front of you. That is a strength of reactive approaches.
Rather than see the choice of strategies, particularly the preventive or reactive strategies, as an either/or situation, we’ll let you in on the worst-kept secret of testing (and many other disciplines): There is no one best way. We suggest that you adopt whatever test approaches make the most sense in your particular situation, and feel free to borrow and blend.
How do you know which strategies to pick or blend for the best chance of success? There are many factors to consider, but let us highlight a few of the most important:
- Risks: Risk management is very important during testing, so consider the risks and the level of risk. For a well-established application that is evolving slowly, regression is an important risk, so regression-averse strategies make sense. For a new application, a risk analysis may reveal different risks if you pick a risk-based analytical strategy.
- Skills: Consider which skills your testers possess and lack because strategies must not only be chosen, they must also be executed. . A standard compliant strategy is a smart choice when you lack the time and skills in your team to create your own approach.
- Objectives: Testing must satisfy the needs and requirements of stakeholders to be successful. If the objective is to find as many defects as possible with a minimal amount of up-front time and effort invested – for example, at a typical independent test lab – then a dynamic strategy makes sense.
- Regulations: Sometimes you must satisfy not only stakeholders, but also regulators. In this case, you may need to plan a methodical test strategy that satisfies these regulators that you have met all their requirements.
- Product: Some products like, weapons systems and contract-development software tend to have well-specified requirements. This leads to synergy with a requirements-based analytical strategy.
- Business: Business considerations and business continuity are often important. If you can use a legacy system as a model for a new system, you can use a model-based strategy.
You must choose testing strategies with an eye towards the factors mentioned earlier, the schedule, budget, and feature constraints of the project and the realities of the organization and its politics.
We mentioned above that a good team can sometimes triumph over a situation where materials, process and delaying factors are ranged against its success. However, talented execution of an unwise strategy is the equivalent of going very fast down a highway in the wrong direction. Therefore, you must make smart choices in terms of testing strategies.