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What is Defect or bugs or faults in software testing?

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Definition:

- A defect is an error or a bug, in the application which is created. A programmer while designing and building the software can make mistakes or error. These mistakes or errors mean that there are flaws in the software. These are called defects.

- When actual result deviates from the expected result while testing a software application or product then it results into a defect. Hence, any deviation from the specification mentioned in the product functional specification document is a defect. In different organizations it’s called differently like bug, issue, incidents or problem.

- When the result of the software application or product does not meet with the end user expectations or the software requirements then it results into a Bug or Defect. These defects or bugs occur because of an error in logic or in coding which results into the failure or unpredicted or unanticipated results.

Additional Information about Defects / Bugs:

While testing a software application or product if large number of defects are found then it’s called Buggy.

When a tester finds a bug or defect it’s required to convey the same to the developers. Thus they report bugs  with the detail steps and are called as Bug Reports, issue report, problem report, etc.

This Defect report or Bug report consists of the following information:

  • Defect_ID – Every bug or defect has it’s unique identification number
  • Defect Description – This includes the abstract of the issue.
  • Product Version – This includes the product version of the application in which the defect is found.
  • Detail Steps – This includes the detailed steps of the issue with the screenshots attached so that developers can recreate it.
  • Date Raised – This includes the Date when the bug is reported
  • Reported By – This includes the details of the tester who reported the bug like Name and ID
  • Status – This field includes the Status of the defect like New, Assigned, Open, Retest, Verification, Closed, Failed, Deferred, etc.
  • Fixed by – This field includes the details of the developer who fixed it like Name and ID
  • Date Closed – This includes the Date when the bug is closed
  • Severity: Based on the severity (Critical, Major or Minor) it tells us about impact of the defect or bug in the software application
  • Priority: Based on the Priority set (High/Medium/Low) the order of fixing the defect can be made.

 Also see – Failure in software testing